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Development of photocatalysis
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Development of photocatalysis: Photocatalyst was discovered in 1967 by Professor Akira Fujishima when he was a graduate student at Tokyo University. In one test, water was decomposed into oxygen and hydrogen over single crystal titanium oxide under illumination. This effect is known as the "Honda-Fujishima Effect", a combination of Professor Fujishima and his instructor, the president of the Tokyo University of Technology. Later titanium oxide was called photocatalyst because of the promotion of oxidation reaction by the light power. This phenomenon is equivalent to the conversion of light energy into chemical energy, at that time people worldwide were looking for new energy due to the oil crisis, so this technology had been known as an epoch-making method of extracting hydrogen from the water. However, it is difficult to extract large amount hydrogen from water, so the development of this new energy cannot be achieved in a short time, and this enthusiasm slowly faded after a sensation.

In the International Symposium on Titanium Dioxide Photocatalyst held in Canada in 1992, a great number of new ideas on photocatalysts and research results for nitrogen oxide purification had been proposed by Japanese research institutions. So the titanium dioxide-related patents had the largest quantity, and other catalyst-related technology included the catalyst preparation, catalyst structure, catalyst support, catalyst fixation, catalyst performance testing, etc. As a turning point, the photocatalyst used in anti-bacterial, anti-fouling, air purification and other areas of relevant research increased dramatically, from 1971 to June 2000, a total number of 10,717 photocatalyst related patents had applied. The wide application of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) Photocatalyst would bring us clean environment and healthy body. The length of the object of 10-6 meters is referred to micron (Micrometer; mm), 10-9 meters is referred to nano (Nanometer; nm). The dimension of materials gradually turns from micron into nano. The nanomaterials consist of particle size of 1 to 100 nm. The particle size is extremely fine, has a large specific surface area. With the particle size decreases, the surface atomic percentage increases. A large number of incomplete atomic coordination on the surface causes the high surface energy phenomenon. Surface energy accounted for a substantial increase in the proportion of total energy, so that nanomaterial has a great change in the adsorption, light absorption, melting point and other characteristics. The unique characteristics of nano-untra-fime particles have been applied in the field of environmental cleaning. In the reaction process, the nanoparticles would not consume themselves but promote the reaction energy and catalyze the target reaction to decompose harmful or toxic materials. Nano-titanium dioxide is a kind of photocatalyst that can promote the chemical reaction of the material without deterioration, like chlorophyll which is used for photosynthesis in the plant. TiO2 photocatalyst plays the roles of antibacterial, deodorant, oil decomposition, anti-mildew algae, air purification in the sunlight or under indoor fluorescent lamp irradiation.




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